Baruch or Benedict
Spinoza (1632 1677)
born in Amsterdam.
Spinoza's works were listed on the
Index Librorum Prohibitorum (List of Prohibited
Books) by the Roman Catholic Church.
He was excommunicated by the Jewish
He worked grinding lenses for
glasses, microscope, and telescopes.
Spinoza either died of tuberculosis.
Breathing glass dust didn't cause the disease.
Ethics Demonstrated in Geometrical Order
Dutch Jewish Philosopher
He opposed Descartes mindbody dualism.
His books were burned by Protestants.
Spinoza was a lens grinder.
He died at 44 of a lung illness.
He turned down prestigious teaching positions.
Gave his family inheritance to his sister.
Mind and body are the same thing. Everything is one
God and nature are the same thing - the same
God/Nature are infinite.
God/Nature are perfect.
seems imperfect because our perceptions are limited.
God/Nature are deterministic. Nothing happens by
There is no free will.
People assume they have free will because they are
aware of their desires, but they are unaware of
their causes (Letter to G. H. Schaller).
Good and evil are pleasure and pain.
All rights are derived from the State.
Three types of knowledge opinion, reason, and