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TWO-DIMENSIONAL ART

CHAPTER 1

 Jean-Michel Basquiat | Picasso

 

 

MEDIA

 

DRAWING


DRY MEDIA


Graphite:

 

                                       
9H 8H 7H 6H 5H 4H 3H 2H H F HB B 2B 3B 4B 5B 6B 7B 8B 9B
Hardest > Medium > Softest

From Hardest to Softest
 

Pencils are made of graphite. We refer to them as lead because the first pencils were made of lead, and graphite was originally thought to be a form of lead.

 

Charcoal:

 

 

Charcoal is produced by heating wood in the absence of oxygen. The final result is up to 98% carbon.


Charcoal can be smudged with your fingers - to achieve a sense of volume and three-dimensionality (chiaroscuro - Italian for light-dark). A resin is sprayed over the drawing to fix the image.

 

Robert Longo Charcoal Drawings

 

Chalk:


 


Chalk is a sedimentary rock that is formed underwater. It's composed of calcium carbonate. 

It can also be smudged with your fingers - to achieve chiaroscuro.

 

Sidewalk Art and Perspective
 



Gaetano Gandolfi (17341802) Italian Baroque painter.
Cain and Abel - chalk on paper


Gaetano Gandolfi Seated Male Nude - chalk on paper

 

Gaetano Gandolfi (1734 - 1802) was an Italian painter of the late Baroque and early Neoclassic period.

 

 

Pastel:

 

 

Pastels consist of powdered pigments in a binder. These pigments are the same that are used in other art media. Their colors are vibrant, and their name is also used to describe the type of colors that pastels produce.

 

Pastels can also be smudge and worked with the fingers, but they require no spray fixative.

 

 

Mary Cassatt - Sleepy Baby 1910

Edgar Degas - Ballet Dancers in the Wings

Jean Etienne Liotard (1702 at Geneva 1789 in Geneva)  Swiss-French painter - Portrait of a Young Woman

 

 

WET MEDIA

 

Pen and Ink:

 

Different intensities can be created by diluting the ink.

 

Amedeo Modigliani - Ritratto di Donna Rossa
Pen and Ink

 

Michelangelo

 

Bistre Ink was made by boiling large quantities of wood creosote (chimney soot). The preferred wood is beech, and the resulting ink is silky smooth - with a warn golden brown colors.



Wash and Brush:

 

Ink is diluted with water, and washed onto paper with a brush.

 


Waterfall and Monkeys by Shibata Zeshin, 1872

 

 

MEDIA

 
 

 

 

 

PAINTING

Watercolor:

 

Watercolor paint is fast drying, transparent, and is diluted with water.
 

 

Albrect Durer - A Young Hare, 1502 - watercolor

Van Goh 1883

 

 

Acrylic:

 

The pigments of acrylic paint are suspended in an acrylic polymer emulsion. The paint is water soluble, and when diluting, the media is like watercolors. 

The paint is inferior because it's fast drying. Recent advancements have made this media as durable as oil paint. 




Oil Paint:


The pigments of oil paint are suspended in linseed oil. It can be diluted with linseed oil, turpentine, or varnish; varnish creates a glossy finish. Technically the oil never fully dries.

 

Oil is slow to dry, so the artist has ample time to work the paint, or wipe the paint off the canvass. Intense details, shading, and chiaroscuro can be created with this paint. Photo realism became possible with the invention of this media.

 

Landscape by Chen Chengpo, 1933

Note: Chinese oil painting is not a common practice.

 

Photorealism

 

Fresco:

In buon fresco pigments are mixed with water, and applied on wet lime mortar. The plaster serves as a binder. Because the plaster dries fast, this technique is done in sections. Colors are limited, because some pigments don't react well with lime.

Secco frescos are painted on dry plaster, so the pigments require a binder. Egg tempera was the most common paint used. Secco work is often done on top of a buon fresco to: give the work more detail, add a color unavailable with buon fresco (blue for example), and to correct mistakes. Unfortunately secco frescos don't last as long.

 


Michelangelo's Sistine Chapel (1508-1512)
What type of fresco did he use?
After |
The Restoration

 

Tempera:

Tempera is a fast drying paint, durable, and long lasting. Pigments are mixed with egg yolks, glue, or gum. This was replaced by the invention of oil paint.

 

Franz Marc - Red and Blue Horses, 1912, Tempera on Paper

Franz Marc (1880 1916) was a German painter and printmaker. He was one of the key figures of the German Expressionist movement.

 

Printing


Relief Etching:
 


 

In relief etching groves are cut into a plate or wood block (matrix). Ink is applied to the surface, and paper is pressed onto the surface. The ink on the raised areas transfers onto the paper. The cut out areas become the negative space.
 

THE BOOK OF URIZEN

by William Blake, 1818

 


 

 

 

Thirty-six Views of Mount Fuji
Woodblock
 Katsushika Hokusai, Japan (17601849)

 
Image English title Japanese title
1 The Great Wave off Kanagawa 神奈川沖浪裏

Kanagawa oki nami-ura

2 South Wind, Clear Sky (also known as Red Fuji) 凱風快晴

Gaifū kaisei

3 Rainstorm Beneath the Summit 山下白雨

Sanka hakū

4 Under Mannen Bridge at Fukagawa 深川万年橋下

Fukagawa Mannen-bashi shita

5 Sundai, Edo 東都駿台

Tōto sundai

6 The Blue Mountain and Circle of Pine Trees 青山円座松

Aoyama enza-no-matsu

7 Senju, Musashi Province 武州千住

Bushū Senju

8 Inume Pass, Kōshū 甲州犬目峠

Kōshū inume-tōge

9 Fuji View Field in Owari Province 尾州不二見原

Bishū Fujimigahara

10 Ejiri in the Suruga Province 駿州江尻

Sunshū Ejiri

11 A sketch of the Mitsui shop in Suruga in Edo 江都駿河町三井見世略図

Kōto Suruga-cho Mitsui Miseryakuzu

12 Sunset across the Ryōgoku bridge from the bank of the Sumida River at Onmayagashi 御厩川岸より両国橋夕陽見

Ommayagashi yori ryōgoku-bashi yūhi mi

13 Sazai hall - Temple of Five Hundred Rakan 五百らかん寺さざゐどう

Gohyaku-rakanji Sazaidō

14 Tea house at Koishikawa. The morning after a snowfall 礫川雪の旦

Koishikawa yuki no ashita

15 Below Meguro 下目黒

Shimo-Meguro

16 Watermill at Onden 隠田の水車

Onden no suisha

17 Enoshima in Sagami Province 相州江の島

Soshū Enoshima

18 Shore of Tago Bay, Ejiri at Tōkaidō 東海道江尻田子の浦略図

Tōkaidō Ejiri tago-no-ura

19 Yoshida at Tōkaidō 東海道吉田

Tōkaidō Yoshida

20 The Kazusa Province sea route 上総の海路

Kazusa no kairo

21 Nihonbashi bridge in Edo 江戸日本橋

Edo Nihon-bashi

22 Barrier Town on the Sumida River 隅田川関屋の里

Sumidagawa Sekiya no sato

23 Bay of Noboto 登戸浦

Noboto-ura

24 The lake of Hakone in Sagami Province 相州箱根湖水

Sōshū Hakone kosui

25 Mount Fuji reflects in Lake Kawaguchi, seen from the Misaka Pass in Kai Province 甲州三坂水面

Kōshū Misaka suimen

26 Hodogaya on the Tōkaidō 東海道保ケ谷

Tōkaidō Hodogaya

27 Tama River in Musashi Province 武州玉川

Bushū Tamagawa

28 Asakusa Hongan-ji temple in the Eastern capital [Edo] 東都浅草本願寺

Tōto Asakusa honganji

29 Tsukuda Island in Musashi Province 武陽佃島

Buyō Tsukuda-jima

30 Shichiri beach in Sagami Province 相州七里浜

Soshū Shichiri-ga-hama

31 Umegawa in Sagami Province 相州梅沢庄

Soshū umezawanoshō

32 Kajikazawa in Kai Province 甲州石班沢

Kōshū Kajikazawa

33 Mishima Pass in Kai Province 甲州三嶌越

Kōshū Mishima-goe

34 Mount Fuji from the mountains of Tōtōmi 遠江山中

Tōtōmi sanchū

35 Lake Suwa in Shinano Province 信州諏訪湖

Shinshū Suwa-ko

36 Ushibori in Hitachi Province 常州牛掘

Jōshū Ushibori

Additional 10
 

Image English title Japanese title
1 Goten-yama-hill, Shinagawa on the Tōkaidō 東海道品川御殿山の不二

Tōkaidō Shinagawa Goten'yama no Fuji

2 Honjo Tatekawa, the timberyard at Honjo 本所立川

Honjo Tatekawa

3 Pleasure District at Senju 従千住花街眺望の不二

Senju Hana-machi Yori Chōbō no Fuji

4 Nakahara in Sagami Province 相州仲原

Sōshū Nakahara

5 Ōno Shinden in the Suruga Province 駿州大野新田

Sunshū Ōno-shinden

6 Climbing on Fuji 諸人登山

Shojin tozan

7 The Tea plantation of Katakura in Suruga Province 駿州片倉茶園の不二

Sunshū Katakura chaen no Fuji

8 The Fuji from Kanaya on the Tōkaidō 東海道金谷の不二

Tōkaidō Kanaya no Fuji

9 Dawn at Isawa in Kai Province 甲州伊沢暁

Kōshū Isawa no Akatsuki

10 The back of Fuji from the Minobu river 身延川裏不二

Minobu-gawa ura Fuji


 

MOVABLE TYPE PRINTING

 


 

Johannes Gutenberg (13981468) was a German goldsmith, printer, and publisher. His invented movable type printing in 1439. The design of his press was taken from the wine screw presses at the time - see picture below. Before the invention of movable type, books were handwritten, or they were printed using the woodblock method.

 

WINE PRESS

Gutenberg Press

Movable Type

 

Intaglio:
 


Intaglio printing is the opposite of relief printing. The plate is inked, and the surface is wiped clean, so ink remains in the etched groves. Dampened paper is pressed onto the plate under great pressure - to force the paper into the groves. The ink in the groves transfers onto the paper.

This process can be done by cutting groves into the plate, or a resin can be applied to the matrix. Paper is placed on top of the matrix, and a drawing is done. Where the artist has drawn, the resin transfers onto the paper - leaving the metal plate exposed. The plate is soaked in acid, and these exposed areas are etched.

 

 

Printed Circuit Board

 

Planographic Printing:

The artist paints ink onto a flat unetched metal plate. Paper is pressed onto the plate. This creates a single onetime print.

 

Lithography:

 

Johann Alois Senefelder (17711834) was a German actor and playwright. Her invented lithography in 1796. VIDEO

Lithography is a planographic processes of printing  that uses a limestone matrix. The name comes from litho for stone - and graph to draw. The artist draws onto the stone with grease. Water is pored on the stone, and it's absorbed where there is no grease. An oil-based ink is applied to the surface. It's repelled by the water, and sticks to the grease.

Lithographs produce tiny dots of color, and trick the eye into seeing continuous tones.



Gicle Printing:

The word gicle (zhee-clay) is derived from the French word "gicler" to spray. Gicle is a process of sprayed ink. The resolution is far greater because when the ink is sprayed onto paper or canvass, and the colors blend together creating continuous tones.

 

Collage

 


Juan Gris, The Sunblind, 1914, Tate Gallery


Henri Matisse, Beasts of the Sea, 1950, paper collage on canvas

Henri Matisse, The Sorrows of the King, 1952, Gouache on paper and canvas, Pompidou Centre, Paris

Henri Matisse, The Snail, 1953, Gouache on paper, cut and pasted, on white paper Tate Gallery

Richard Hamilton, John McHale, Just What Is It That Makes Todays Homes So Different, So Appealing? 1956, collage, (one of the earliest works to be considered Pop Art)

Tom Wesselmann, Still Life #20, mixed media, collage, 1962, Albright-Knox Art Gallery Buffalo, New York

Thumbnail for version as of 19:04, 12 September 2004

Compotier avec fruits, violon et verre by Pablo Picasso (1912)

Thumbnail for version as of 12:53, 1 August 2008

Henri Matisse, Blue Nude II, 1952, gouache dcoupe, Pompidou Centre, Paris

Cecil Touchon, Fusion Series #2174, Collage on Paper, billboard material

Make a Collage
EXTRA CREDIT
Examples by John Chiappone
 


Visit the Student Gallery

 


 

 


 


 

PHOTOGRAPHY

 

Camera Obscura:

 

Camera obscura is Latin for dark room. It projects an image of its surroundings through a pinhole onto a screen. It was used to draw accurate images - and to experiment with light.

The first camera obscura was built by Arab scientist Abu Ali Al-Hasan Ibn (9651039 AD). AD refers to Anno Domini; in the year of our/the  Lord.

 

Pinhole Camera:

A pinhole camera is a small camera obscura with photo sensitive paper on the back wall. VIDEO

 

Photographic Process:

William Henry Fox Talbot (1800 1877) invented the photographic process.


William Henry Fox Talbot, 1864

Latticed window at Lacock Abbey, 1835

This was from the oldest negative in existence.

 


Pencil of Nature



Talbot's book Pencil of Nature was published between 1844 and 1846. It was the first book with photographic illustrations ever commercially published.

 


 

 

 Cameraless Photography

 

Anna Atkins (1799 1871) was an English botanist, photographer, and the first person to publish a book illustrated exclusively with photographic images.

Sir John Herschel, a friend of Atkins and her father, invented the cyanotype photographic process in 1842. Anna applied the process to solve the difficulties of making accurate drawings of scientific specimens. She self-published the first photographic book - British Algae: Cyanotype Impressions. Only about twelve copies of the book were made, one of which is held in the National Media Museum in Bradford, England. She continued to publish other installments of the British Algae series, and also to make other books like Cyanotypes of British and Foreign Flowering Plants and Ferns (1854.

View Anna Atkins

 

 

 

 

 

 




 

 

 

 

 

 


 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

A photogram is a photographic image made without a camera by placing objects directly onto the surface of a photo-sensitive material such as photographic paper, and then exposing it to light. The result is a negative shadow image varying in tone, depending on the transparency of the objects used. Areas of the paper that have received no light appear white; those exposed through transparent or semi-transparent objects appear grey.

This method of imaging is perhaps most prominently attributed to Man Ray and his exploration of rayographs. Others who have experimented with the technique include Lszl Moholy-Nagy, Christian Schad (who called them "Schadographs"), Imogen Cunningham and even Pablo Picasso.

Man Ray (1890 1976) was an American artist who spent most of his career in Paris. He helped establish the Dada, Surrealist, and  avant-garde movements. He is noted for his photograms - which he renamed rayographs. ARTnews magazine named him one of the 25 most influential artists of the 20th century.
Standard
Man Ray
Rayagraphs
  "Rayograph" by Man Ray
 


 


Scanagraphs:



 

Scanagraphs were created by John Chiappone as a way to teach composition and cameraless photography. Create your own scanagraph by placing objects on a scanner or copy machine. See the extra credit assignments on the Blackboard site.

 

 


 

ELEMENTS OF ART

View the Class ART Gallery

 

PRINCIPLES OF ART
Guide

 

 


 

 

PERSPECTIVE


 

 LINEAR PERSPECTIVE

 

 

 

 


 

Perspective (PSF).png

 

 

 

 

SHIFTING PERSPECTIVE



Ma Yan (c. 11601225)

Dancing and Singing
(Peasants Returning from Work)

中文: 踏歌圖

 

Landscape With Palace
Japanese, Edo period
Tozaka Bun`yo, 17831852

ATMOSPHERIC PERSPECTIVE

River in a Mountain Landscape by John Mix Stanley

 

CHIAROSCURO


JOHN CHIAPPONE 2010
Shifting Sjapes


Chiaroscuro is Italian for light and Shade.
It creates a 3d quality.

Renaissance - Official Trailer

 


 Michelangelo Merisi da Caravaggio
 


Michelangelo Merisi da Caravaggio
(September 28, 1573 July 18, 1610)
Italian Baroque painter

 

 

The Calling of Saint Matthew
 
Caravaggio
by Ottavio Leoni
Flagellazione di Cristo, 1607
Crocifissione di sant'Andrea, 1607-1608
 
David and Goliath

 

The Conversion on the Way to Damascus

Crucifixion of Peter

Cupid (1602)



John the Baptist
(Youth with a Ram), 1602
 
 

DYNAMICS

 

 Triangles:
  
Rudolf Bauer (1889 1953) German abstract artist
  
Frank Frazetta (1928 2010) American fantasy and science fiction

 

 


Straight Photography:

 

Alfred Stieglitz - Self Portrait, 1886



Alfred Stieglitz (1864 1946) was an American photographer who founded Straight Photography (p49). Straight Photography is realistic - with sharp focus. They reject soft focus and manipulation.

Stieglitz used his New York galleries to advance photography and avant-garde art as legitimate. His wife was the famous painter Georgia O'Keeffe.

 


ANSEL ADAMS (1902 1984)
 

Ansel Easton Adams was an straight photographer and environmentalist. The clarity and depth of his pictures is owed to his view camera. He is best known for his black-and-white photographs of Yosemite National Park.
 

www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/ansel/gallery/pop_ansel_01.html

 

Ansel Adams - Evening McDonald Lake, Glacier National Park

 

 


 

Documentary Photography:

 

TANK MAN
TANK MAN VIDEO

Photo by Jeff Widener (Associated Press), June 5, 1989.


The image is one of the most famous symbols of the 20th century. An anonymous man stopped a column of tanks in Beijing after the Chinese military forcibly removed protestors from Tiananmen Square the day before. See World Press Photos for more like this.

 


 

Ashes and Snow by Canadian artist Gregory Colbert is an installation of photographic artworks, films, and a novel in letters that travels in the Nomadic Museum, a temporary structure built exclusively to house the exhibition. The work explores the shared poetic sensibilities of human beings and animals. To date, Ashes and Snow has attracted more than 10 million visitors, making it the most attended exhibition by a living artist in history.

 


 

CONCRETE PHOTOGRAPHY


Erika Blumenfeld

Erica photographs light.

 


 

ART APPRECIATION

 

Tom Shannon

The painter and the pendulum

 

Francis Bacon:
A Requiem
Three Studies for Figures at the Base of a Crucifixion


RADIOLAB - ON MEMORY

http://www.joeandoe.com


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FUNNY

Pulitzer Prize Editorial Cartooning

 

CHILD PRODIGY

Marla Olmstead

Alexandra Nechita

 

 

  ACTION PAINTING

 

EBOOKS

 

THE PRACTICE & SCIENCE OF DRAWING
BY HAROLD SPEED

 

 

 

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