Intro to Logic
Intro to Humanities
Hardest to Softest
Pencils are made of
graphite. We refer to them as lead because
the first pencils were made of lead, and
graphite was originally thought to be a form
Charcoal is produced by
heating wood in the absence of oxygen. The final result is
up to 98% carbon.
Charcoal can be smudged with your fingers - to achieve a
sense of volume and three-dimensionality (chiaroscuro -
Italian for light-dark). A resin is sprayed over the drawing
to fix the image.
Robert Longo – Charcoal Drawings
Chalk is a sedimentary rock that is formed
underwater. It's composed of calcium carbonate.
It can also be smudged with
your fingers - to achieve chiaroscuro.
Sidewalk Art and
Gaetano Gandolfi (1734–1802) Italian Baroque painter.
Cain and Abel - chalk on paper
Gaetano Gandolfi Seated
Male Nude - chalk on paper
Gandolfi (1734 - 1802) was an Italian painter of the late
Baroque and early Neoclassic period.
Pastels consist of powdered pigments in a
binder. These pigments are the same that are used in other
art media. Their colors are vibrant, and their name is also
used to describe the type of colors that pastels produce.
Pastels can also be smudge and worked
with the fingers, but they require no spray fixative.
Mary Cassatt - Sleepy Baby
Edgar Degas - Ballet
Dancers in the Wings
Etienne Liotard (1702 at Geneva – 1789 in Geneva)
Swiss-French painter - Portrait of a Young Woman
Pen and Ink:
intensities can be created by diluting the ink.
Amedeo Modigliani -
Ritratto di Donna Rossa
Pen and Ink
Bistre Ink was made by boiling
large quantities of wood creosote (chimney
soot). The preferred wood is beech, and the
resulting ink is silky smooth - with a warn
golden brown colors.
Ink is diluted
with water, and washed onto paper with a brush.
Watercolor paint is fast drying, transparent, and is diluted
Albrect Durer - A Young Hare, 1502 -
Van Goh 1883
The pigments of acrylic paint are suspended
in an acrylic polymer emulsion. The paint is water soluble,
and when diluting, the media is like watercolors.
The paint is inferior because it's fast
drying. Recent advancements have made this media as durable
as oil paint.
The pigments of oil paint are
suspended in linseed oil. It can be diluted with linseed
oil, turpentine, or varnish; varnish creates a glossy
finish. Technically the oil never fully dries.
Oil is slow to dry, so the
artist has ample time to work the paint, or wipe the
paint off the canvass. Intense details, shading, and
chiaroscuro can be created with this paint. Photo realism
became possible with the invention of this media.
Landscape by Chen Chengpo, 1933
Note: Chinese oil painting is not a common
In buon fresco pigments are mixed with water,
and applied on wet lime mortar. The plaster serves as a
binder. Because the plaster dries fast, this technique is
done in sections. Colors are limited, because some pigments
don't react well with lime.
Secco frescos are painted on dry plaster, so
pigments require a binder. Egg tempera was the most
common paint used. Secco work is often done on top of a buon
fresco to: give the work more detail, add a color
unavailable with buon fresco (blue for example), and to
correct mistakes. Unfortunately secco frescos don't last as
Sistine Chapel (1508-1512)
What type of fresco did he
Tempera is a fast drying paint, durable, and
long lasting. Pigments are mixed with egg yolks, glue,
or gum. This was replaced by the invention of oil paint.
Franz Marc - Red and Blue Horses, 1912,
Tempera on Paper
Franz Marc (1880 – 1916) was a German painter and
printmaker. He was one of the key figures of the German
In relief etching groves
are cut into a plate or wood block (matrix). Ink is
applied to the surface, and paper is pressed onto the
surface. The ink on the raised areas transfers onto the
paper. The cut out areas become the negative space.
BOOK OF URIZEN
William Blake, 1818
Thirty-six Views of Mount Fuji
Hokusai, Japan (1760–1849)
ryōgoku-bashi yūhi mi
Koishikawa yuki no
Onden no suisha
Kazusa no kairo
Sōshū Hakone kosui
Goten'yama no Fuji
Yori Chōbō no Fuji
chaen no Fuji
Tōkaidō Kanaya no
Kōshū Isawa no
MOVABLE TYPE PRINTING
(1398–1468) was a German goldsmith, printer, and
publisher. His invented movable type printing in
1439. The design of his press was taken from the
wine screw presses at the time - see picture
below. Before the invention of movable type,
books were handwritten, or they were printed
using the woodblock method.
Intaglio printing is the opposite of relief printing. The plate
is inked, and the surface is wiped clean, so ink remains in
the etched groves. Dampened paper is pressed onto the plate
under great pressure - to force the paper into the groves.
The ink in the groves transfers onto the paper.
This process can be done
by cutting groves into the plate, or a resin can be applied
to the matrix. Paper is placed on top of the matrix, and a
drawing is done. Where the artist has drawn, the resin
transfers onto the paper - leaving the metal plate exposed.
The plate is soaked in acid, and these exposed areas are
The artist paints ink onto
a flat unetched metal plate. Paper is pressed onto the
plate. This creates a single onetime print.
Johann Alois Senefelder
(1771–1834) was a German actor and playwright.
Her invented lithography in 1796.
The word giclée (zhee-clay)
is derived from the French word "gicler" to spray. Giclée is
a process of sprayed ink. The resolution is far greater
because when the ink is sprayed onto paper or canvass, and
the colors blend together creating continuous tones.
Juan Gris, The Sunblind,
Beasts of the Sea, 1950,
paper collage on canvas
The Sorrows of the King,
Gouache on paper and canvas,
The Snail, 1953,
Gouache on paper, cut and
pasted, on white paper
John McHale, Just What Is It
That Makes Today’s Homes So
Different, So Appealing? 1956,
collage, (one of the earliest works
to be considered
Tom Wesselmann, Still Life
mixed media, collage, 1962,
Albright-Knox Art Gallery
Buffalo, New York
Compotier avec fruits, violon
et verre by
Pablo Picasso (1912)
Blue Nude II, 1952,
Cecil Touchon, Fusion Series
#2174, Collage on Paper,
Examples by John Chiappone
B A N K S Y
Camera obscura is Latin for dark room.
It projects an image of its surroundings through a
pinhole onto a screen. It was used to draw accurate
images - and to experiment with light.
The first camera obscura was built by Arab scientist Abu
Ali Al-Hasan Ibn (965–1039 AD). AD refers to Anno
Domini; in the year of our/the Lord.
A pinhole camera is a small camera obscura with photo
sensitive paper on the back wall.
William Henry Fox Talbot (1800 –
1877) invented the photographic process.
William Henry Fox Talbot, 1864
Latticed window at Lacock Abbey, 1835
This was from the oldest negative in existence.
Pencil of Nature
Talbot's book Pencil of Nature was published
between 1844 and 1846. It was the first book
with photographic illustrations ever
Scanagraphs were created by John Chiappone as a way to teach
composition and cameraless photography. Create your own scanagraph by placing objects on a scanner
or copy machine. See the extra credit assignments on the
View the Class ART Gallery
Ma Yüan (c. 1160–1225)
(Peasants Returning from Work)
Landscape With Palace
Japanese, Edo period
Tozaka Bun`yo, 1783–1852
River in a Mountain Landscape by
John Mix Stanley
Chiaroscuro is Italian for light and Shade.
It creates a 3d quality.
Michelangelo Merisi da Caravaggio
Michelangelo Merisi da Caravaggio
(September 28, 1573 – July 18,
Italian Baroque painter
1953) German abstract artist
(1928 – 2010) American fantasy and
- Self Portrait, 1886
Alfred Stieglitz (1864 – 1946) was an American photographer who founded
Straight Photography (p49). Straight Photography is
realistic - with sharp focus. They reject soft focus
Stieglitz used his New York galleries to advance
photography and avant-garde art as legitimate. His wife
was the famous painter Georgia O'Keeffe.
Easton Adams was an straight photographer and
environmentalist. The clarity and depth of his pictures is
owed to his
Ansel Adams - Evening McDonald Lake, Glacier National
TANK MAN VIDEO
Jeff Widener (Associated
Press), June 5, 1989.
The image is one of the most
famous symbols of the 20th century. An anonymous
man stopped a column of tanks in Beijing after
the Chinese military forcibly removed protestors
from Tiananmen Square the day before. See World
Press Photos for more like this.
Breaking News Photography
Spot News Photography
World Press Photos of the Year
Ami Vitale -
Gregory Colbert - Ashes & Snow
Ashes and Snow by
Gregory Colbert is an installation of
photographic artworks, films, and a novel in
letters that travels in the
Nomadic Museum, a temporary structure
built exclusively to house the exhibition.
The work explores the shared poetic
sensibilities of human beings and animals.
To date, Ashes and Snow has attracted more
than 10 million visitors, making it the most
attended exhibition by a living artist in
The painter and the pendulum
Three Studies for Figures at the Base of a
RADIOLAB - ON MEMORY
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THE PRACTICE & SCIENCE OF DRAWING
BY HAROLD SPEED
Copyright © 2012