Those who dream by
night, in the dusty recesses of their minds, wake in
the day to find that all was vanity, but the
dreamers of the day are dangerous men, for they act
their dreams with open eyes, and make it possible.
TE Lawrence (Lawrence of Arabia)
Rocks – Jean-Paul Sartre used the
symbol of rocks to represent people who fail to act and
One Flew Over the Cuckoo's Nest, and Dead Man Walking used
crucifixion to represent suffering and Christianity.
Roses – They represent purity and love because they sprang
from the blood of Adonis who loved Aphrodite. A great
Used in Lawnmower Man, and
Sling Blade. What could a lawnmower
Weeds – A
great example is Perre
Dandelion. What do dandelions and weeds
Train - Runaway Train / Harold and Maude – What does a train
or disconnected boxcar represent?
FOUR TYPES OF LITERATURE:
FICTION: (nonfactual / imaginative)
Novel – A long work with many
TYPES OF SUBJECT MATTER:
1. Sociological-panoramic: covers many years and settings.
2. Dramatic-intimate: covers a restricted time and setting.
TYPES OF NOVELS:
1. Epistolary – told through letters (The Color Purple)
2. Gothic – medieval mystery and terror (Fiction)
3. Historical – realistic epoch.
4. Manners – Social customs (Pride and Prejudice)
5. Picaresque – adventures of a traveler (Yhomas Nash – The
6. Psychological – emphases is on the characters motives and
inner-world that triggers events. Events also trigger the
inner world. This raises the question: do we have free will,
or are all our actions predetermined. (Leo Tolstoy – War and
7. Sentimental – exaggerated emotional focus (Samuel
Richardson – Pamela)
Usually a single scene with few characters
that are underdeveloped. Fables and folklores are examples.
In a fable the characters are animals, and there is a moral
to the story. (Aesop’s Fables)
NONFICTION: (factual) p188
1. Biography – about a
2. Hagiogrphy – a biography about a religious person
3. Essay – Nonfiction Informal - brief, conversational, loose structure. Formal –
longer, structured, impersonal subject, less emphasis on
Point of View – the perspective from which
the story is told.
1. First Person Singular – told from a character’s point of
2. Third Person - has two types:
a. Singular – from a character that isn’t in the story.
b. Omniscient – from all the characters’ perspective or no
How something is said changes the meaning.
T R Y
Peter Gabriel - Mercy
Street - Live in Milan 2003
(1928 - 1974)
45 Mercy Street |
SOME TYPES OF
poem written in three lines.
Does this poem have the right
number of syllables per line?
Here is a tip; try clapping.
A still water
A rock that sits by
No ripples, no mind.
Poems that tell a story.
arrange their words to create a picture of the subject of
the poem (example).
FREE VERSE POETRY – Modern
poetry that is free form like Jazz. It has no ridged
structure, doesn't necessarily rhyme, sounds
conversational, and improvisational.
POET - the author of a poem.
SPEAKER - the “narrator” of a poem.
cause sense perceptions like sights, sounds, tastes, tactile
sensations, and smells.
comparison of two unlike things:
Juliet is the
Sun, and I am moon.
SIMILE - A comparison of two things using
“like, as, or resembles.” For example: Juliet is like the
Sun, and I resemble the moon. She’s like a maze where all
the walls continually change. – Daughters by John Mayer
imitate the sounds they describe.
Examples: Buzz ,
oink, meow, roar,
rip, zip, and zap.
It is a figure of speech in which statements
are exaggerated. Hyperbole is used to create emphasis, but
it is rarely meant to be taken literally.
* These books weigh a ton. (The books
* The path went on forever. (The path was
* He jumped a mile. (He jumped
* I'm doing a million things right now.
* I'm so hungry I could eat a
(I'm very hungry)
anthropomorphic (human) qualities to an animal or
"Arise fair sun, and kill the envious moon."
- Romeo and Juliet by William Shakespeare
FORM - the appearance of the words on the page
LINE - a line of the poem
STANZA - a paragraph or group of lines
As I was sitting in my chair,
I knew the bottom wasn't there,
Nor legs nor back, but I just sat,
Ignoring little things like that.
- 2 lines
- 3 lines
Quatrain - 4 lines
Quintet - 5 lines
- 6 lines
Septet - 7 lines
Octave - 8 lines
STRUCTURE – P194
Lines with the same: number
of words, syllables, accents, rhyme etc.
1. Rhyme – words that sound alike.
2. Alliteration – repeating an
initial sound: Peter
3. Assonance – uses similar
vowels: In Xanadu did Kubla
Khan - by Coleridge
Mad as a Hatter
4. Consonance – repeated
RHYTHM - The
beat of a poem. Meter, rhyme, assonance, consonance,
alliteration, and refrain contribute to a poem’s rhythm.
FOOT – a pattern of stressed (strong) and unstressed (weak)
TYPES OF FEET
Trochaic - stressed, unstressed
Dactylic - stressed, unstressed, unstressed
Anapestic - unstressed, unstressed, stressed
METER - A pattern of stressed and
unstressed syllables on a line.
TYPES OF METER
Monometer - 1 foot per line
Dimeter - 2 feet
- 3 feet
Tetrameter - 4 feet
Pentameter - 5 feet
Hexameter - 6 feet
Heptameter - 7 feet
Octometer - 8 feet
RHYME - Words
sound alike because they share the same ending vowels and
END RHYME -
words at the end of lines that rhyme.
Compare Thee To A Summer's Day?
"Shall I compare
thee to a summer's day?
Thou art more lovely
and more temperate:
Rough winds do shake
the darling buds of May,
And summer's lease
hath all too short a date".
- William Shakespear
rhyme inside a line.
Edgar Allan Poe (1809 – 1849)
Once upon a midnight dreary,
while I pondered, weak and weary,
Over many a quaint and curious volume of
While I nodded, nearly
napping, suddenly there came a
As of some one gently rapping,
rapping at my chamber door.
"'Tis some visitor," I muttered, "tapping
at my chamber door -
Only this, and nothing more."
RHYME SCHEME -
a pattern of rhymes:
To Anthea, who may Command him Anything
Bid me to weep, and I will
While I have eyes to
And having none, and yet I will
A heart to weep for
My Mistress' Eyes are nothing like the Sun.
By William Shakespeare
My mistress' eyes are nothing like
Coral is far more red than her lip's
If snow be white, why then her
breasts are dun,
If hair be wires, black wires grow on
I have seen roses damasked, red and
But no such roses see I in her
In some perfumes there is more
strong, weak, strong
Than the breath with which my
I love to hear her speak, yet well I
Music hath a far more pleasing sound;
I grant I never saw a goddess go;
My mistress, when she walks, treads
on the ground.
And yet, by heaven, I think my love
As any she belied with false compare.
- Hear the mellow wedding bells. —
Edgar Allan Poe, "The
- That solitude which suits
abstruser musings - Samuel Coleridge
- On a proud round cloud
in a white high
night - E. E. Cummings,
if a Cheer Rules Elephant Angel
The repetition of the same consonants. For example: "all
Sam are clammy".
Alliteration is a special case of consonance
where the repeated consonant sound is at the beginning of
each word, as in:
A sound, word,
phrase or line repeated regularly. For example:
President Obama’s speech: 'Yes, We Can Change'
Yes, we can. Yes, we can change. Yes, we can. … And where we
are met with cynicism and doubt and fear and those who tell
us that we can't, we will respond with that timeless creed
that sums up the spirit of the American people in three
simple words -- yes, we can.”
EXERCISE - 1
EXERCISE - 2
Rafael Casal -
Def Poetry Jam - Alicia Keys -
P O W
Def Jam Poetry -
Perre Shelton "Dandelion"
- Jill Scott & Mos Def
"Again" John Legend (Def Poetry)
Maya Angelou -
And Still I Rise
by William Shakespeare -
American Verse Project
Online Rhyming Dictionary
- Nathaniel Hawthorne.